Length: 54 pages. Word Wise: Enabled. Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled. His birth and death dates are traditional but may well be approximately accurate. Undoubtedly, Hippocrates was a historical figure, a great physician who exercised a permanent influence on the development of medicine and on the ideals and ethics of the physician. During this period, the Museum of Alexandria in Egypt collected for its library literary material from preceding periods in celebration of the past greatness of Greece. So far as it can be inferred, the medical works that remained from the Classical period among the earliest prose writings in Greek were assembled as a group and called the works of Hippocrates Corpus Hippocraticum.
Linguists and physicians subsequently wrote commentaries on them, and, as a result, all the virtues of the Classical medical works were eventually attributed to Hippocrates and his personality constructed from them. The virtues of the Hippocratic writings are many, and, although they are of varying lengths and literary quality, they are all simple and direct, earnest in their desire to help, and lacking in technical jargon and elaborate argument.
The works show such different views and styles that they cannot be by one person, and some were clearly written in later periods. Yet all the works of the Corpus share basic assumptions about how the body works and what disease is, providing a sense of the substance and appeal of ancient Greek medicine as practiced by Hippocrates and other physicians of his era.
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Prominent among these attractive works are the Epidemics , which give annual records of weather and associated diseases, along with individual case histories and records of treatment, collected from cities in northern Greece. Diagnosis and prognosis are frequent subjects. Other treatises explain how to set fractures and treat wounds , feed and comfort patients, and take care of the body to avoid illness.
Treatises called Diseases deal with serious illnesses, proceeding from the head to the feet, giving symptoms, prognoses, and treatments. There are works on diseases of women, childbirth, and pediatrics. Prescribed medications, other than foods and local salves, are generally purgatives to rid the body of the noxious substances thought to cause disease. Some works argue that medicine is indeed a science , with firm principles and methods, although explicit medical theory is very rare.
The medicine depends on a mythology of how the body works and how its inner organs are connected. Hence, while much of the writing seems wise and correct, there are large areas where much is unknown.
Over the next four centuries, The Embassy inspired other imaginative writings, including letters between Hippocrates and the Persian king and also the philosopher Democritus. Still other works were added to the Hippocratic Corpus between its first collection and its first scholarly edition around the beginning of the 2nd century ad. Among them were the Hippocratic Oath and other ethical writings that prescribe principles of behaviour for the physician.
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Technical medical science developed in the Hellenistic period and after. Surgery , pharmacy , and anatomy advanced; physiology became the subject of serious speculation; and philosophic criticism improved the logic of medical theories. Competing schools in medicine first Empiricism and later Rationalism claimed Hippocrates as the origin and inspiration of their doctrines. In the 2nd century ad , the physician Galen of Pergamum developed his magnificent medical system, a synthesis of preceding work and his own additions that became the basis of European and Arabic medicine into the Renaissance.
Galen was argumentative and long-winded, often abusive of contemporaries and earlier physicians, but at the same time, with exaggerated reverence that ignored five centuries of progress, he claimed that Hippocrates was the source of all that he himself knew and practiced. For later physicians, Hippocrates stood as the inspirational source, while the more difficult Galen offered the substantial details. As time went on, reverence for the past had to contend with new notions of scientific method and new discoveries. Arguments against Galenic medicine were often more effective when they were presented as returns to true Hippocratic medicine.
New scientific methodology argued for a return to observation and study of nature, abandoning bookish authority. The simple and direct writings of the Hippocratic Collection read well as sample empirical texts that eschewed dogma. By the late 19th century, Galen was irrelevant to medical practice, and general knowledge of Hippocratic medical writings was beginning to fade. However, today Hippocrates still continues to represent the humane, ethical aspects of the medical profession.
A number of idealized images of Hippocrates have survived from antiquity, but none that seems to derive from a contemporary portrait. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Medical thought had reached this stage and had partially discarded the conceptions based upon magic and religion by bce , the year that Hippocrates is said to have been born. Although he has been called the father of medicine, little is known of his…. Hippocrates was a 5th-century native of the Dorian island of Cos, but the writings that have survived are probably not his personal work.
Meno [with Biographical Introduction] Free download. Follow the Author A book whose argument went way o ver my head. Page Flip: Enabled. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Further Reading His birth and death dates are traditional but may well be approximately accurate. Merit the Greyhound: The Racing Years. Customers who viewed this item also viewed By the late 19th century, Galen was irrelevant to medical practice, and general knowledge of Hippocratic medical writings was beginning to fade.
That railway was soon absorbed by the Pacific Electric Railway. Soul Train Scramble Board - idea for a party game. Match the slang word to its clue. What's Happening!
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Beautiful Centerpiece For Fall but easily adaptable to any season. Idea for mini train station. Red Cars traveled along the wide median of Hawthorne Boulevard, which was known as Railway Avenue until The Red Cars stopped operating in the area in the s and '50s, but rail never disappeared. Freight rail played a huge part in the South Bay's industrial development. The second half of the 20th Century marked a rise in reliance on automobiles.
In the s the Freeway carved through the region. Old Rail lines were abandoned, and some were converted into parking spaces for cars. As people were pushed into car dependency, the freeways became choked with pollution, gridlock, and especially in the 's case, misery. In the s the LACTC advanced the idea of creating a passenger rail line along the so-called "Coastal Corridor," which would've offered an alternative to sitting in traffic.
Eventually, Passenger rail was partially restored to the region when the Green Line arrived in The further it extends into the region, the easier it will be to visit and explore without having to use a car. Until then, public transit options serving the area include several bus lines operated by Metro, Torrance Transit, and Beach Cities Transit. The Green Line extension isn't yet in the engineering phase, so it's possible that things will change between now and then.
Since construction of light rail along pre-existing right-of-ways tends to take a lot less time than tunnel-boring for subways, the Green Line's extension will probably be completed well before the Purple Line completes its journey to the sea. It looks like the first station will be located near the intersection of Inglewood Avenue and Manhattan Beach Boulevard, at the edge of Redondo Beach and tiny, landlocked, and diverse Lawndale.
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Within a few blocks of the intersection there are currently restaurants featuring Argentine, Brazilian, Chilean, Cuban, Filipino, Greek, Lebanese, Mexican, Peruvian, Vietnamese cuisines, as well as donuts and hamburgers. Nearby, underneath the path of high voltage lines buzzing electric lines hum throughout much of the South Bay , is the South Bay Gardens nursery, whose property eventually gives way to a bike and pedestrian path to the south. A few blocks west of the future station is one of Northrop Grumman Aerospace System's several campuses in the region.
Anderson Parks. The second station of the extension will likely be located near Artesia Boulevard, still on the edge of Redondo Beach and Lawndale. The intersection is near the South Bay Galleria, a three-story mall built in on the former site of an old May Company store. It seems likely that it will be in some way incorporated into the Green Line extension, although the relatively small bus operation currently only includes two lines, which serve El Segundo, Hermosa Beach, Manhattan Beach, and Redondo Beach.
Nearby parks include Dale Page Park, Perry Park, and the aforementioned and not-very-long bike and pedestrian trail that runs under high voltage lines, between Phelan and Felton Lanes.
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Also nearby is The Thirsty Club, a popular dive bar with both shuffle board and karaoke. As with the first stop, the area boasts a variety of restaurants -- in this case offering donuts, Arabic, Brazilian, Chinese, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Mediterranean, Mexican, Moroccan, hamburgers, sandwiches, and seafood.
The sign on El Indio says "since ," which makes it one of the older establishments in the region, and hopefully one that will remain in existence once the train arrives. The third station of the extension will likely be constructed near the intersection of Hawthorne Boulevard and th Street, at the edge of Redondo Beach and Torrance.
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Torrance is the largest city in the South Bay, both in terms of area and population. It's almost completely landlocked except for a bayside neighborhood known as Hollywood Riviera. Torrance's largest ethnicity is Japanese, which is why it's sometimes affectionately referred to as Torrance Prefecture. Torrance has long been highly diverse, although the demographics are shifting. One of the oldest neighborhoods is El Pueblo nicknamed "La Rana" , established by immigrants from Purepero, Michoacan, that arrived around the same time as the first wave of Issei Japanese.